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Thursday, October 19, 2017

Goodnight with no cat eye glow

Dr. Ben Watmon examining  Rwot's eye at Nebbi hospital
By Esther Nakkazi

He was quiet and frail.

The three year, little boy, had an eye problem, and obviously not enough sleep the previous night. Living 50 kilometers from Nebbi hospital, father and son had to wake up at dawn to be the first in the queue.

Still, little Jonathan Rwot was almost at the end of the long line that mostly had elderly people. He was sitting in his father’s lap. Never raising his head. Starring at the floor with his head slightly bent down all the while.

It was one of the hotter days. Rwot could have been playing hide and seek or kicking a locally made football with other kids but here he was waiting.

He had to have an examination; an operation and a referral. He was not only suffering physically but emotionally too. He was small, with a scary, protruding eye and undernourished. Such a pitiful sight. It was not his turn but got pulled out of the line. That was luck.

“He might not live beyond five years,” said Dr. Ben Watmon an ophthalmologist. He was using an ophthalmoscope to shine a bright light into Rwot’s eye as part of the examination. Only then, did Rwot, for three years look straight into another person’s eyes for a long time.

Gibert Onegi, the father was not fixated on the details of the diagnosis. Really, just some concerns loomed; If he could get his son out of pain, to play with other children and sleep with his eyes closed without crying at night. Maybe the emotional pain would go away too.

Dr. Watmon asked gingerly how and when the problem started. He probed. But Onegi had no exact answers.

It supposedly started when Rwot was four months, said Onegi. But his boy got no medical attention. He was living with his mother. She did not have much time or love for Rwot. She later found another man and abandoned her young son.

By the time Rwot was brought to his father two years after he was born, the tumor within the eye was fully grown. He was lonely. Kids didn't play with him. They shunned Rwot. But he never cried in front of them - just watched them play.

At night, Rwot’s sick eye did not close. It glowed like a cat’s eye in their pitch black small, one-roomed house. Rwot did not sleep much and only at night did he cry, Onegi said.

Rwot was diagnosed with retinoblastoma, a cancer that starts in the retina. It is a common eye cancer in children and can be sporadic or hereditary. If not treated early the tumor grows outside of the eyeball. Exactly what happened to Rwot.

“The clinical appearance shows the cancer is in advanced stages,” said Dr. Watmon who was at Nebbi hospital for an eye camp. He explained that the camp is a bridging gap for the rural poor who may never afford or have a chance to see a specialist. But he is limited in his services.
“At the camp, I do not look at itching eyes. My main work is surgery. Rwot has had a chance,” he said. Based at Gulu hospital, about 70 kilometers away, Dr. Watmon is also the one ophthalmologist in charge of the whole mid-northern region with millions of people.

That is not strange. Uganda has only 48 ophthalmologists, according to their umbrella body, the Uganda Ophthalmology Society. Eight have since retired leaving only 40 to serve an entire population of 41 million people. 26 of these remain in the country’s capital, Kampala. 14 like Dr. Watmon serve the rural populations in hard to reach areas.

Many hospitals out of Kampala, Nebbi inclusive, lack specialized services. So conditions that could be treated early and reversed go untreated until the ‘arm of God’ presents breakthroughs like the eye camp.

The Uganda Government tries to solve the problem by partnering with non-governmental organizations to provide such services through camps. For this eye camp, its partner was Amref Health Africa, Uganda branch.

But the demand for specialist services for each hospital is different. For instance, in 2016, Nebbi hospital registered 49,809 outpatients. 2.3 percent or 1,180 were eye patients, said Dr. Charles Keneddy Kissa the medical superintendent, Nebbi hospital.

“We have one ophthalmologist officer who can only handle minor eye cases such as allergies although the hospital has a beautiful eye clinic, which has not been used for 10 years,” said Dr. Kissa.

They have tried to find an ophthalmologist doctor. “We have advertised many times but got no interested candidates,” said Dr. Kissa. Undeniably, this is a hard to reach area and with no incentives, doctors are not eager to work there.

As such, conditions like glaucoma, refractive errors and cataracts, which most of the people in the line waiting with Rwot have, cannot be reversed and cured because they cannot be intercepted early.

Another solution could be getting an eye donation but organ transplant in Uganda is illegal.

Dr. Watmon had two solutions for Rwot; first to put him on chemotherapy then remove the eye or remove the eye and do chemotherapy. He opted for the latter and referred him to Ruharo eye center, the only facility in Uganda that gives free eye chemotherapy services for children.

But it is in the western part of the country while Rwot lives in the northern part.

However, there is hope. If his case is forwarded to Ruharo, as a referral, transport money will be sent to Onegi to take his son for free chemotherapy.

But at Nebbi hospital at least the journey began. Rwot’s operation was among the 42 Doctor Watmon carried out during the five-day eye camp. 106 patients were examined but some were not as lucky as Rwot. They walked long distances back home to wait for the next eye camp.

“At least Rwot will be free of pain,” said Dr. Watmon. He will sleep with his eyes closed.

ends

This article was made possible by Amref Africa- Uganda

Wednesday, October 11, 2017

Contraceptives for teens is immoral but they are having sex

By Esther Nakkazi

On the International Day of the Girl Child, Uganda is struggling with what to do with her girl child. At the tender age of sixteen, the average Ugandan girl is having sex. But do they need contraceptives?

According to studies, Uganda has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in sub-Saharan Africa. By ages 15-19, one in four Ugandan women is already a mother or is pregnant and later in life from age 15 - 24 years - the burden of HIV is high - Uganda has the second highest rate of HIV infection among women.

To wisely address this issue Uganda revised its fourth, 2015, policy, National Guidelines and Service Standards for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights.

After 18 months of adequately engaging all stakeholders including district leaders, service providers, religious and cultural leaders, with Uganda's Ministry of Health, particularly its reproductive health department, spearheading the review process, the Guidelines were ready to be launched.

They were, duly, signed by Uganda's Ministry of Health acting director general of health services, Prof. Anthony Mbonye who is also a member of the faculty of public health at London's Royal College of Physicians meaning his ministry endorsed them. As well the assistant commissioner of health services, Dr. Bladinah Nakiganda appended her signature.

Strategically, the revised Guidelines were to be launched on the final day of the Uganda National Family Planning Conference, held from 26th to 27th September 2017 in Kampala.

When they were presented to the state minister for primary health care, Joyce Moriku, there was hesitation and she announced that the speaker of Parliament, Rebbeca Kadaga, was not consulted so she could not launch them.

Ultimately, she refused to launch them saying, Ministry of Health officials had not been consulted and that the Guidelines intended to distribute contraceptives to 10-year-olds.

In the same breath when the Minister of health, Dr. Jane Ruth Aceng, appeared before parliament she confirmed that her ministry does not own the Guidelines and ‘acting staff’ in this case a high-level well-trained official, who is part of her team, endorsed the guidelines.

The Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of health, Dr. Diana Atwine has also told reporters that they do not agree with the guidelines and they will stick to ‘moral principles’.

Now, besides showing a lame, uncoordinated leadership at Uganda’s Ministry of health this whole fracas shows two other things. While for HIV, the leadership is worried that the money injected into prevention is not yielding matching results and will defend every coin the story is different when it comes to family planning.

This year, the Uganda teen pregnancy rate shot up by 1%. For over 10 years, the Uganda teenage pregnancy levels have stagnated, at least 25 percent of Uganda teenagers become pregnant by 19 years and face four times the risk of maternal death according to the Ministry of Health.

On the other hand, there is increased funding, even domestically, the family planning budget has grown by 40% from $3.3 million $5 million after President Museveni attended the 2012 London Family planning summit. But the leaders at the Ministry seem to be comfortable with having more funds and maintaining the miserable reproductive health stats.

Secondly, in February this year, I attended the first international symposium on community health workers held in Kampala. The Executive Director for African Centre for Global Health and Social Transformation (ACHEST) Prof. Francis Omaswa, a much-celebrated officer at the Ministry of Health advised that; ‘the best way to manage a system is not to blame an individual. I guess, in this instance, that should be advised to the ministry of health leadership.

This morning civil society had a press conference and confessed to a dangerous trend of Ministry of Health creating a ‘leadership vacuum’ and refusing to provide evidence-based policy and technical guidance on issues that relate to sex and sexuality in Uganda.

They also blamed the ministry for creating a ‘policy desert’ especially for health workers who are faced with challenges of young girls asking for contraceptives.

Apparently, the revised Guidelines are an essential technical tool to equip policymakers and health workers with the framework to provide SRHR services to Ugandans, including adolescent girls and young women.

"We have to address the reality the girls are facing. We need access to services based on science and evidence. Ministry of health should be ashamed," said Moses Mulumba, the team leader at CEHURD.

“Our babies are having babies and it is a reality that young girls are having sex,” said Justine Balya, the Human Rights Awareness and Promotion Forum (HRAPF) Legal Consultant at the civil society press conference.

Civil Society also cited governance issues, saying it is a "failure of leadership on the part of the Ministry of Health," for the launch and later withdrawal of not only these SRHR policy guidelines but also the ‘Standards and Guidelines for reducing Morbidity and Mortality due to unsafe abortion in Uganda’ which were withdrawn in 2016.

For the National Guidelines and Service Standards for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights civil society which funded them said all they are interested in is providing age-appropriate family planning information to young girls and that is spelt out in the Guidelines.

Now, no one is interested in giving teens contraceptives. They are too young. But if they become teen mothers their own teen children will also have babies and the cycle will continue.  The best we can do is have an 'open and honest' conversation not mute it. With the right information, they will make the right call! Don't we get it!

ends.

Monday, October 2, 2017

Uganda's Biotech Bill Could Become Law Tomorrow?

By Esther Nakkazi

The Uganda biotechnology and biosafety bill is due to be debated in parliament for the nth time tomorrow, Tuesday (3rd, October, 2017).

If it is passed it will send a strong signal to the rest of world if not biotech experts have vowed not to mourn over it but to re-strategise, clean it up and table it before parliament again.

The man in charge is Dr. Elioda Tumwesigye, the minister of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI), a qualified medical doctor who has continuously confessed to not knowing much about agricultural biotech.

Last week, Dr. Tumwesigye was in parliament and while the the bill was on the order paper he deferred to use the opportunity begging to first hear from biotech experts who would be in Uganda attending a three-day (27th-29th September) high-level conference on application of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) in harnessing Africa’s agricultural transformation.

Tumwesigye himself anxious for the bill to pass was seeking advise on among other things; GMO labelling, strict liability and the expedited review clause, which he has been advised to delete and have stagnated the bill at Parliament.

Experts attending the conference praised Uganda for its progress in conducting field trials but cautioned about it delaying the bill further.

At the conference,  Dr. Tumwesigye reached out to biotech experts for insights into winning over the reluctant Uganda parliamentarians. “For me I am just a medical doctor. I want to understand, if there are now more modern technologies is it still relevant for us to pass this bill,” inquired Dr. Tumwesigye who is also the first minister of the newly created ministry of STI. He was reacting to the statements below.

Answers from the biotech experts were direct and straight. 

“In Africa we like debating as opportunities pass by us. The world has now moved from biotechnology to gene editing. Africans can be leaders and not followers,” said Margaret Karembu, the director of International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications Africa regional office (ISAAA AfriCenter).

“We need to move with some speed so that new emerging technologies do not move ahead of us,” said Abed K. Mathagu the program officer-regulatory affairs at the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF).

To which Dr. Tumwesigye wondered if it was still necessary for Uganda to adopt the biotech bill and not leap frog like Africa did with mobile telephony. “Cant we skip the biotech law and move on to gene editing if the technology is now archaic?”

"Both of these technologies (biotech and gene editing) are necessary and needed. We should not exclude one or another. They both serve different purposes. Before we can have food security people need to be secure about the food they eat," said Kevin M. Folta a professor and chairman of the HorticulturalSciences department at the University of Florida

For now, the Uganda biotech bill drafted in 2012 already has support from the highest office, the Uganda president, Yoweri Museveni, but has failed to get enough support from Parliamentarians for it to be passed.

“I have repeatedly said that there is nothing wrong with this technology. However, there are lots of controversies due to misinformation, which unfortunately seems to have been bought by some legislators,” said Yoweri Museveni.

“My government created the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MoSTI) in June 2016 to provide a basis for enhancing sector coherence and coordination,” said Uganda’s Yoweri Museveni in a speech read for him by Vincent Ssempijja the Minister of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries.

Museveni said the priority for the STI ministry is to spearhead the retabling and consideration by Parliament of the bill, which ‘must be adopted for Ugandan farmers to access biotechnology products to increase their production’.

Uganda developed and adopted the biotechnology and biosafety bill 2012, which the Ministry of STI is working towards its enactment into law.

“Uganda should learn from other countries and pass this law now. And it should be done in a way that you do not have to go back to parliamentarians for amendments. The warning is that do not repeat the mistakes of other countries,” said Bongani Maseko, general manager, AfricaBio. 

“If it is passed we are supposed to celebrate. Ultimately, it will send a strong signal to other African countries. But if it does not go through we shall re-strategise but we shall not be mourning,” said Dr. John Komen, Assistant Director and Africa Coordinator, Program for Biosafety Systems (PBS)

Dr. Komen and other biotech experts attending the conference said Uganda’s bigger challenge is actually not just passing the bill but how to operationalise it.

Currently, in sub-Saharan Africa the following countries test GM crops: Burkina Faso, Sudan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Ghana, Cameroon, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland and South Africa. But only two are currently growing them: Sudan and South Africa.

ends.

Friday, September 29, 2017

Africa needs to harness the power of Science, Technology and Innovation to transform its Agriculture

By Esther Nakkazi

In an effort to transform agriculture and enhance food security, Africa needs to establish evidence-based policy and regulatory frameworks to facilitate effective utilisation of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI), a conference heard.

The three day high level conference on the application of STI in harnessing opportunities for Africa’s Agricultural transformation opened in Uganda (26th-28th), as policy makers articulated policy options to guide changes needed in Africa’s farming systems if the continent is to be bread basket for the world.

The conference marks the beginning of an annual high-level policy dialogue platform hosted by the Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology (OFAB) in Africa. The theme is “Integrating the Path in Africa’s Agricultural Transformation”.

It provides an opportunity to share knowledge and experiences on best technological and policy options available to stimulate sustainable agricultural development in Africa, he added.

“Agriculture is the sector upon which the success of sub Saharan Africa’s ambition for a steady economic growth rests. However, the yields of both crops and livestock in the region remains very low compared to global averages due to several challenges,” said President Yoweri Museveni in a speech read for him by Vincent Ssempijja, the Minister of Agriculture, Animal husbandry and Fisheries.

“Some of these challenges require us to harness the power of STI to transform African agriculture,” said Museveni.

“Our efforts must begin by strengthening investments in breakthrough technologies, such as climate resilient and disease resistant crops and livestock using both conventional and genetically engineered approaches,” said Museveni.

According to Dr. Denis T Kyetera, the Executive Director, African Agriculture Technology Foundation (AATF) for Africa to fully take advantage of the exiting new developments in agriculture changes need to happen in the policy front and high-level policymakers should be fully supportive of the need to integrate STI into the path towards agricultural revolution.

“There is no better way of ensuring support by the decision makers than through constructive dialogues and continuous conversations among experts, farmers and policy makers,” said Dr. Kyetera.

“Since most of the constraints for using science technology engineering and innovation in Africa are similar, we are gathered here in this high level conference for us to agree on addressing key issues that are hindering use of science, technology and innovations in commercialization of African Agriculture,” said the Dr. Elioda Tumwesigye, the Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) in Uganda .

ends

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Museveni Supports Agricultural Biotechnology; Speech

A SPEECH BY H.E. YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI

                                   PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA


DURING THE OFFICIAL OPENING CEREMONY OF HIGH-LEVEL CONFERENCE ON APPLICATION OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION IN HARNESSING AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION


THE SPEKE RESORT MUNYONYO, KAMPALA, UGANDA,

27-29 SEPTEMBER 2017


Honorable Ministers from Uganda and all other African Countries,

Honorable Members of Parliament,

Members of Diplomatic Missions,

Members of the Media,

Ladies and Gentlemen

I wish to welcome you all to Uganda and particularly to this first ever high level conference on the Application of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) in Harnessing Opportunities for Africa’s Agricultural Transformation.
I have repeatedly pointed out that if we do not increase our Agricultural Production, we will not feed ourselves and like in most developing countries, Agriculture still remains the most important sector of the economies of Sub Saharan Africa in terms of GDP contribution, employment and foreign exchange earnings.

Agriculture is the sector upon which the success of Sub Saharan Africa’s ambition for a steady economic growth rests. However, the yields of both crops and livestock in Sub Saharan Africa remains very low compared to global averages due to several challenges. Some of these challenges require us to harness the power of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) to transform African agriculture.

Africa has an opportunity that can help transform its agriculture to be a force of food security and economic growth. There are several advances in science, technology and innovation worldwide that offer Africa new tools needed to promote sustainable agriculture. Our efforts must begin by strengthening investments in breakthrough technologies, such as climate resilient and disease resistant crops and livestock using both conventional and genetically engineered approaches.

Science, Technology and Innovation is making a profound impact on agriculture production globally. The agriculture of the future will be very different from the agriculture of today and vastly different from the agriculture of the past.

One of the key technologies that is of particular focus is Agricultural biotechnology. I have repeatedly said that there is nothing wrong with this technology. We have been using it for generations and there is nothing wrong with it. However, there are lots of controversy due to misinformation which unfortunately, seems to have been bought by some legislators.

The origin of this controversy seems to have been partly legitimized through international biosafety legal instruments, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB). The CPB required each signatory to put in place a national legal framework for safe development and commercialization of Genetically Modified Organisms. As a consequence, most countries in Africa have either put in place, or are working to develop, legal frameworks for development and deployment of GMOs.

My government is committed to using Science, Technology and Innovations (STI) to advance economic development. This is well articulated in my 23 Strategic Guidelines and Directives to the cabinet and in the NRM Manifesto of 2016-2021 as minimum standards for Uganda to attain the middle-income status.

Throughout history advances in Science and Technology have always been the primers for social change. STI has accordingly emerged as the major driver of national development globally. Scientific, technological and innovation advancement are a critical precursor for industrialization and socioeconomic development. 

They enable the creation of new firms and/or industries that act as avenues for translating Research and Development (R&D) outputs into commercialized outcomes comprising of new products, processes and enterprises. As Uganda aspires for faster, sustainable and inclusive growth, as expressed in the Vision 2040 and the National Development Plan II (NDP II), the Ugandan Science Technology Engineering and Innovation (STEI) ecosystem with the advantages of a large demographic dividend and the huge talent pool, will need to play a defining role in achieving the national Vision and Goals. The national Science Technology Engineering and Innovation (STEI) enterprises must become central to national development.

My government created the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MoSTI) in June 2016 to provide a basis for enhancing sector coherence and coordination.

One of the priorities for the Ministry is to spearhead the retabling and consideration by Parliament of the National Biotechnology and Biosafety Bill 2012. This Bill must be adopted for Ugandan farmers to access biotechnology products to increase their production.

I support the proposal by the Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation to establish a high level platform for Science, Technology and Innovation (PFST) Chaired by myself whose goal will be to identify, synthesise and articulate policy and strategic issues to support coherent and evidence-based decision-making by various arms of Government on STI matters especially matters related to biotechnology.

For all guests outside Uganda and in Africa, I call upon you to support your governments to embrace use of Science, Technology and Innovation in development. On the subject of GMOs, let us all move as a block and all decisions should be based on sound science. This technology is working elsewhere and we should not be left behind, the way we missed out during the green revolution that brought food security to South East Asia. We should not allow activists to continue confusing our legislators.

For God and My Country.

H.E. YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI

PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA

(The speech was read by the Minister of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Vincent Ssempijja) 

Friday, September 22, 2017

Age limit; Museveni Speeches Tell It All

Esther Nakkazi

Uganda medics have an uphill task. President Museveni asked their opinion on the most contentious issue in the country today. Age limit for a president.

The Uganda constitution spells out that a president should be between 35 and 75 years old. Last week, Friday 15th September, Yoweri Museveni celebrated his 73rd birthday meaning if the constitution is not amended, he cannot participate in the next elections due in 2021.

It will be Museveni’s sixth term as he has been Uganda’s President since 1986.

But in 2012, while appearing on a television show, Museveni said leaders over 75 lacked the necessary rigour and that, that was ‘scientific logic’. Now that logic needs scientific evidence from the Uganda medics.

Recently, Museveni was put on the spot, over his very remarks and not wanting to backtrack or eat his words asked the medics to give their opinion - if a 75 year old would really be ‘fit to lead or not’.

It was not the first time that Museveni sought solid scientific evidence to enable him make his next move.

When Uganda was about to pass the tough Anti-homosexuality law, Museveni was quoted by the Aljazeera news outlet as asking from scientists; "What I want them to clarify is whether a combination of genes can cause anybody to be a homosexual. Then my task will be finished and I will sign the bill.” He even invited scientists from the US to help.

This week the Uganda Medical Association (UMA), an association of Uganda medical doctors said they are waiting for a ‘formal request’ from Museveni to provide an answer. The Savings and Credit Cooperative Organization (SACCO) of UMA got a a large donation of 2 billion shillings from Museveni.

So can any of them speak up and tell the emperor that he has no clothes?

For sure even without a formal request, medics can tell Ugandans that older people in general have cognitive decline and impairment. We have all observed Museveni become less articulate, using less sophisticated vocabulary, using more fillers like ‘um’ ‘ho’ 'ni-ni' and even repeating himself, not only for speeches but even word for word.

But worse he is even getting vulgar. When he was addressing the press in 2015 at Mbale State lodge, this is how he was quoted by the Observer newspaper, "if you put your hands in the anus of a leopard, you are in trouble” "...If you go and put your finger in the anus of a leopard. You are in trouble, you are in trouble. Ho! Ho! I cant believe how people could do so. NRM?, you attack NRM people in Uganda here? If it is in South Sudan or Kenya, yes we may have some problems. But in Uganda here? Where do go? Where do you go? So there will be no problem here. Those people made a big mistake, those individuals and those children are going to regret."

Sometimes Museveni’s speeches have turned biblical and hilarious like the one he made at mark of the anniversary of Entebbe 40 year raid. The UK’s DailyMail had a fitting headline; Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni’s bizzare rambling speech. He literally said nothing much.

At most public gatherings, Museveni doses off in-front of cameras but he has defended that saying he is ‘not sleeping but meditating’. It could be stress, fatigue because he is said to put in long hours but it could also be another medical condition or age.

It is just obvious that a human being at 70 is not as sharp as they were at 40. If you analyse Museveni's speeches that is evident. At first he had brilliant ideas like barter trade among developing countries, which he explained in speeches that were peppered with phrases like ‘the most unfavorable exogenous factor is lack of access to markets in North America, EU, Japan, China, India and Russia’’.

"All protectionism, especially in the OECD countries, must end. Yet these are the countries that evangelise in the name of free trade! What a paradox that is quite unfortunate! These double standards must end,” were his signature phrases.

For the ‘State of the Nation’ address on April 11,1989 his speech was like; “I am very proud to see that one of my long-held wishes—to see the emergence in Uganda of a reasonable measure of national consensus, as well as a nonsectarian forum— is at last beginning to be realized.”

“Currently, Africa is one of the most backward continent in the whole world. Elsewhere, I have defined backwardness as the absence of a reasonable degree of development. I have also defined development as man's ability to tame his environment and utilize its natural laws for his own benefit. I am using the word "reasonable" because man's mastery of nature— even for the advanced countries—is still only relative. Nevertheless, there are those who have reasonably mastered certain aspects of nature and have, consequently, improved their lot on earth. If one, therefore, takes "development" and "backwardness" as defined above, you will agree that Africa is one of the most backward continents.”

Those were well turned in sentences with explanations showing a sharp brain at 45 years.

But these days he makes more unrealistic speeches of Uganda getting middle income status by 2020 even when organisations like the World Bank have made it clear that it is impossible. You just wonder if he lives in an alternate reality.

All he cites are investment in infrastructure, discovered oil that will create thousands of jobs. But he never mentions fundamental issues like the ever increasing corruption or even by the very least bringing down the fertility rate to 2.2% which would stabilise the population.

Uganda’s fertility is one of the highest in the world at 5.6%. By 2050, Uganda’s population will be 101.2 million and by 2040 about 75.6 million people.

Medical studies have proven that linguistic and cognitive decline often happen at the same time and verbal fluency reflects brain performance. It is normal as people age. No one can be as sharp at 73 as they were at 45.

Museveni who has a habit for speaking extemporaneously - never staying on his written speeches - is sometimes hilarious, biblical, historical and even grandfatherly so we can just follow the speeches to say what the medics can't say.  No need for medical examinations!

ends

Conference to share the status of Agriculture in Africa; the current, past and future trends

By Esther Nakkazi

Uganda in partnership with the African Agricultural Technology Foundation, the African Union Commission and the Common Markets for Eastern and Southern Africa are organizing a three-day (27th-29th September) high-level conference on application of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) in harnessing opportunities for Africa’s agricultural transformation.

"The meeting targets policy makers and is going to promote technologies that are applicable in Africa," said Dr. Denis Kyetera, the Executive Director, African Agriculture Technology Foundation (AATF).

"Ministers will engage each other and share what technologies are available in their countries. This will eventually create a conversation between the different ministries," said Dr. Kyetera.

For Africa to benefit from cutting-edge science, technology and innovation it needs to address five key issues said Dr. Elioda Tumwesigye, the Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) in Uganda.

"The unpredictable STI policy environment; presence of strict liability bio-safety regulatory frameworks; low technology access; insufficient command among its leaders on STI; low public investments in agricultural research, development and public perceptions."

Dr. Tumwesigye particularly pointed out that Uganda like other African countries needs urgent interventions to find ways of mainstreaming utilization of STI to transform its agriculture needs.

The conference will showcase the current and potential impact of application of science, technology and innovation for improved agricultural productivity, value-addition and poverty reduction. 

According to Dr. Tumwesigye, participants will also share a synopsis of the current status of agriculture in Africa capturing the past, current and future trends as well as showcase the significance of enabling systems in optimizing the impact and benefits of modern biotechnology to African agriculture.

But most importantly, it will facilitate constructive dialogue amongst high-level policy makers, experts, farmers, investor, regulators, communicators, development partners and the media on the role of STIs in sustainable food systems and nutrition in Africa.

Among the topics to be discussed will be; the state of agriculture in Africa, contributions of conventional STI to modern agriculture, integrating modern biotechnology into Africa’s agriculture for food security, securing smallholder farmers’ resilience to impacts of climate change, fostering evidence-based policies for transformational change in Africa’s agriculture, strengthening intellectual property rights to catalyze transformational change in Africa’s agriculture.

Other topics will be about inspiring a Climate for Change to enhance food security, regional approaches to biotech adoption and trade in Africa, winning political patronage//support to advances science in the age of ‘alternative facts’, repositioning agriculture in Africa towards agribusiness entrepreneurial ship, biosafety gate-keeping experiences in Africa: Case study of NBMA of Nigeria and South Africa  and the role of strategic communication in technology adoption for impact.

Targeted participants of the conference include leaders and decision makers, including H.E. General Yoweri Kaguta Museveni the President of the Republic of Uganda, Benjamin Mkapa former president of Tanzania, the Rt. Hon. Dr. Ruhakana Rugunda, Ms. Gina Grey Ivey from the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation,. 

Others are Dr. Hamadou Biteye the managing director Rockefeller foundation, Prof. Kevin Folta the University of Florida, Dr. C.D Mayee president Asian Biotechnology, Cyprian Ebong Executive director ASARECA, cabinet ministers, lead scientists/experts, farmer union leaders, industry captains, biotech advocacy/communication networks, senior science journalists/editors, Professors, UN representatives and development partners.

Uganda is one of the African countries with a ministry devoted to STI. The Uganda Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MoSTI) was created in June 2016 in recognition of the need by Government to explicitly prioritize issues relating to STI as a key driver for Economic Development. 

ends